( A ) ceramic flap disc an important basis for the identification of porcelain imitation of ancient ceramics , often obtaining the shape and losing look , energy efficiency of its Juanxiu may not be able to learn their unadorned . Because a creative artifacts , and when people 's living habits , aesthetic standards and technical conditions are closely related . Generally speaking ceramics in the decoration, glaze , etc. can reflect the characteristics of the times , but styling in this regard is more prominent . So if we are good at identifying its shape and demeanor , you can work in the identification of a more reliable method to master . Observe the shape we must first have a basic concept of ancient style . Ceramic shapes , generally is the ancient simplicity , along with the evolution of the times and becoming complicated . In the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties modeling is concerned, most of the more blunt shape Yuan Zhizhuo , whether blue, white porcelain than the general Song and Ming porcelain become prominent . Especially the daily application of the altar , cans, bottles , pots and plates, bowls and other general objects, there is a large common the shape . For example Yuan blue and white with underglaze red handed down a bowl diameter of 42 cm , blue and underglaze red tape caliber are 45 to 58 centimeters. Because carcass thick, firing difficult , it is inevitable warp , clip flat , concave heart, convex deformation of the end of such defects , and thus more than a million over the past literature porcelain rough of the theory, in fact, this is not comprehensive enough . Yuan porcelain decoration of colorful , solid serving no words , that the market modeling , the twelve panels along the mouth of the multi- flower is a flower opening flowers at the end ( the mouth , the bottom are twelve flower-shaped ) , which shows the time making serious , although the bottom full of micro not easily let go. Such practices to the Ming Yong , declared after they no longer see ( Wing , Xuan saw a flower opening flower foot bowl and medium-sized bowl, wash , no flower foot plate ) . Yongle generally plate, bowl bottom of the heart are mostly convex concave, circular foot, compared with Yuan zoom extraordinarily stable. In particular tire refining fine pottery , modeling appropriate severity . Another kind of white bodiless Yongle period with floral containers , the carcass is very thin, the Qing Dynasty had people describe it called " Lest driven away, and also worry Sunburn off " the poem. This " thin egg curtain " porcelain , fine shape , all plates, bowls and the like, although later pastiche , but there are still floral ornamentation techniques that fall . Xuande porcelain shape more numerous species , regardless of plates, bowls, cups, pots , jars, bottles produced are very delicate , and can inventiveness , innovation, such as the "no block respect" can be said to be unprecedented for, except once when Qianlong imitation , but later there is little such imitations . Currently handed down common Wing , declared during the modeling are: heart-shaped bowl , flowers poured, mitral pots, long round belly ewer ( for the gourd-shaped orifice ) , Vase , flat belly Ribbon bottle gourd , four appointed horns VASE and Ryoka type washing , Ryoka style bowl and so on. Chenghua period in porcelain regard to excellence, the only re slim shape , but also no amplifier . Koji handed porcelain not much, but with yellow glaze amphora , bowls, known to the world . Zhengde period of the most prominent styling with penholder, table plaque , pier bowl , disc -style incense box , seven holes of the round belly halberd pupil bottles. Jia , Wan shape after becoming complex, the shape has a lot of innovative work , the literature on the so-called " production benefits test , no matter there is not " records. Only in a stationery speaking, there penholder , pencil cases , pens, wash , water Cheng , ink stone, color plates, color positions ( commonly known as the warm spoon ) , printed boxes varied. More large fish tanks, large tanks, large bottles , tape ( Jiajing yellow to blue and white tape with up to 80 cm in diameter ) , etc. , the shape of the giant , especially better than the Yuan Dynasty ; others such as hollow bottles, bottle wall , holding boxes , square bucket Cup , candlesticks , embroidered pier , etc. abound. It can be said heavy antique in style and lightness gorgeous both, but compared to permanent , Xuan , a period of work for a bit shoddy. No matter the shape or the Qing Dynasty in terms of the types were significantly increased and ingenious . Kangxi period which innovative work unique. Zhuo vessel such as the pipa respect, horseshoe statue , elephant statue legs , Pteris respect, Guanyin statue , Taibai respect, respect for apple , apricot leaf statue , Bangchui bottles, cloth orange, pour out , willow and other protruding belly flower goblet are rare in the previous generation of the shape . Yongzheng period in the creative aspects of the shape is colorful , such as backgammon respect, three sheep statue , dragon statue ear , deer statue , contact the child respect, Bull statue , garlic mouth ribbon wishful respect, write-mouth olive bottles, Taibai altar , daisy disk and so on . Especially on behalf of the italics kilns and Wing , not only into porcelain glaze , decoration and lifelike , and more in shape enough to the real thing. Qianlong period more prominent styling has taken a turn neck bottles, turn the heart bottle , transfer belt bottles, baskets , fans and book -style printed box, book -style golden helmets and so on. During this period regardless of innovation , antique have reached a climax, the imitation bronze , stone , lacquer , jade , bamboo , wood , and biological or items are very similar. To Jiaqing , Daoguang future , then mostly inherited the old system , there are rarely innovative. From the beautifully transformed into a clumsy shape , has been gradually losing early tradition of excellence . For example in the shape of vase Kangxi , Yongzheng and Qianlong reigns difference is not significant, after gradually become unwieldy to Tongzhi and Guangxu , Xuantong period turned into the belly of the abundance of short-necked short thick form , far less than before, exquisite styling Samsonite it.
ceramic flap disc are made of clay , quartz and feldspar minerals and other natural ingredients formulated according to different formulas , processed , forming and firing derived , its chemical composition depends on the use of natural raw materials and formulations , in different parts of ancient ceramics kilns because the raw materials used different , different formulations and different firing process , the glaze chemical composition, microstructure and physical properties will have their own characteristics . If the collection of different kilns reliable stratigraphic excavations ceramic specimens were systematically studied , the accumulated data such as chemical composition data ( including major and minor element concentrations and trace elements ) to establish a database , and use the appropriate processing methods, such as multivariate statistical analysis and other methods for data processing, to identify a characteristic sense of the law. Ceramic want to identify the chemical composition, microstructure, physical properties , and firing process and other aspects of research , and its chemical composition data with known kilns and chronology of ancient ceramics to compare the chemical composition data processing , and then integrated microstructure, physical properties , and firing process and other aspects of information may make an appraisal of ceramics .